Kom Ombo Temple
Where is Kom Ombo Temple located? History of Kom Ombo Temple?!!
Kom Ombo Temple is located in Aswan City, in the south of Egypt, the city of “Kom Ombo”, located on the eastern bank of the Nile between the cities of Edfu and Aswan, and is located at a distance of 45 km from the north of Aswan and 137 km from the south of Luxor.
You can visit Kom Ombo Temple on a Nile Cruise trip on the way from Luxor to Aswan.
The town of Kom Ombo was built on the edge of fertile agricultural lands, and at the beginning of the road that brings us to the gold mines in the Eastern Desert, and this city is also located on the road that connects us to the oases and Sudan.
“Kom Ombo Temple” is a compound word, the first syllable of the Arabic is called a hill or a plateau, while the second syllable “Ombo” or “anbu” which is misrepresented to “Ombo” is Greek and means gold.
- Built Kom Ombo Temple during the reign of Ptolemy VI Philometor, but its decoration did not take place except in the Roman era during the time of Emperor Tiberius.
- The Kom Ombo Temple established during the reign of “Ptolemy VI Philometor”, either in the Roman Emperor “Tiberius.”, and this explains the existence of the same characteristics of the rest of the Egyptian Ptolemaic temples in it both in terms of design, architecture or decoration.
- Distinguishing the Kom Ombo temple from the other temples, as if people worship the two local gods, Subic and Horus With a hawk head. “
- What distinguishes the two deities is that despite their difference in upbringing, they lived alongside some for centuries without To mix with each other due to the effects of the weather and its changes.
- There are only two adjacent sanctuaries in the temple other than “Subic” and “Horus”, and they are located at the gates of the temple, and there is another statue in the outer wall and in the walls in the columns halls, and it is also found behind the columns halls.
- The Kom Ombo temple is divided into two parts, each of which is dedicated to the worship of these two deities, the walls of the temple are decorated with wonderful Egyptian decoration.
The walls of the temple are distinguished by their good colors, the beauty of the figures on the walls, and the balance of what they have Of personalities, as there are around her hieroglyphs that complete all these scenes.
- This temple extends by an area of 20 square kilometers and is located on the banks of the Nile, as it is far from the north Aswan City, with a distance of 45 km, and away from the South Luxor City, by a distance of 137 km.
Design of Kom Ombo Temple
- Design of Kom Ombo Temple located on the eastern bank of the Nile River about 4 km south of the city of “Combo” and that there is an area called “Al-Jayara” behind the village “Al-Shatb.”
- Each god from Subic and Horus the Elder has a third of their own, and they are located inside the temple. The trinity of the god Subic consists of him, his wife, “Hathout”, and his son named “Khonsu Hur.”
- The third of the god “Horus the Great” consisted of him and his wife “Ta Sint Nefert”, known in the name of the good sister, as well as his son “Ba Nab Tawi”, known in the past as the master of earthly.
- The left side was devoted to the worship of the god “Horus the Great”, and the right side was dedicated to the worship of the deity Subic, starting with the construction of this temple in the era of King Ptolemy the Fifth.
They supplemented his decorations in the era of King Ptolemy VI, King Ptolemy VIII, Ptolemy XII, and the Roman Emperors.
- The entrance to the temple is from the southwestern wall, and we reach the gate of the temple, which was built during the reign of “Ptolemy XII”, and then there is the external edifice of the temple and this is in the era of Emperor “Dominican.”
- There is also an open courtyard, as it is a courtyard with 16 columns bearing inscriptions on both sides.
Left and right, and six other columns on the south side, built by Emperor Tiberius.
The facade of the temple has stone curtains that are located between five columns. The facade also has a large entrance in the center and two small entrances on the side.
- We enter a hall consisting of 15 columns, and its crowns are papyrus, lotus, palm fronds, and a composite column. They have also decorated their ceiling with a deity and incomplete astronomical views of the era of King Ptolemy XII.
- As for inside, there is a view of Sobek on the wall that connects Sobek and Horus gates.
Most of the scenes in the second pillar hall are scenes of the royal coronation.
Renovations of Kom Ombo Temple
- Kom Ombo Temple considers being the only temple in Egypt that combines Egyptian civilization, he built it to worship the two deities, namely the god “Subic” and the god “Hor or” or “Horus the Great.”
- The ancient Egyptians built this temple to worship the god with the head of a hawk called “Horus the Great.”
And the god has a crocodile head called “Subic”, so this temple is one of the temples of dual nature.
- The archaeological mission, which is reducing the percentage of groundwater in the Kom Ombo temple, installed a stone block to its original position inside the “Mamaisei House” after studying the matter and knowing its conformity to the fees that are there.
- They had reached that stone block while they were working inside the “Mamaisei House” in Kom Ombo Temple.
They found it at a depth of 2 and a half meters, length 120 cm, width 40 cm, and thickness around 50 cm thickness.
Archeological discoveries of Kom Ombo Temple
- Egyptian archaeologists found a stone and antique block in Kom Ombo Temple, and this temple was built in the reign of Emperor Ptolemy VI and his wife, Cleopatra.
- These scholars discovered a stone block bearing texts and drawings while working on a reduction project. The groundwater level of the temple.
- They cleaned it well, then they studied the texts and drawings that are on them, applied them with the existing drawings, and then returned them to their original place, which is inside the mamizi birth house.
- Egyptian archaeologists have found this archaeological block at a depth of about 2.5 meters, length 120 cm, width 40 cm and thicknesses about 50 cm thickness.
- They also carried out special studies previously made to reach the place of that original stone block.
They cooperated with the Engineering Department of Upper Egypt Antiquities in Luxor City.
On the top of the stone block, there is the god “Soyk”, which is the main god of the “Kom Ombo” area, and he had a wand.
- On the right side, there is an inscription on the upper part of the distinctive crown of the god Khonsu, either at the top of the right part, there is 4-line hieroglyphic writing.
The architecture of Kom Ombo Temple
- Entire of Kom Ombo Temple has two corridors, an external corridor (the inner wall) and an inner corridor, and there is an outer corridor On the north side, there are 7 rooms, and there are two compartments, one of which is a compartment of the god “Subic and another compartment of the god”Hathor.”
- This temple consists of an open courtyard with 16 Aston distributed on 3 sides, and in the middle of this Aston, there is a swimming pool, where offerings were made in this pool offerings and this is what distinguishes it from the rest of the temples in Egypt.
- There is a hall of large pillars, and there are 10 large sized halls, and the facade of this hall has 5 masters, including curtains.
After that there is a small pillar hall, this hall distinguished by the presence of 10 columns, but slightly smaller from the columns that preceded it, and then 3 halls rectangular in size.
- At the end of the temple, two of the rightful holies are dedicated to the worship of the god “Subic” and the left of them is dedicated to the worship of the god “Horus the Great”, surrounded by side rooms.
- The entire temple is surrounded by two corridors, an outer corridor and an inner corridor, and the northern side of the outer corridor 7 rooms, and then there are two compartments, one of which is a cabin for the god “Subic”, and another room for the god “Hathor.”
- On the south side, a house used to measure the water level and in the north of Kom Ombo Temple, there is a scale of the Nile, and the whole temple is surrounded by images of mud bricks.
- In the hall of the second pillars, there are scenes of the royal coronation, the most important of which are: The king stands and holds the hand of the sign of Al-Was in front of the god Horus, and this sign ends with 3 frogs and this represents and indicates the number of many years.
- And there is a scene of representation of the king with his main and secondary wife together, and the two wives hold in the hand maces, and the sign was the face, and this is what distinguishes it from the other temples because there is no such scene other than this temple.
- Also, in Kom Ombo Temple, there is a medical painting, for the king “Ptolemy the Fifth” in the position of worship, and Imhotep the king’s minister, “Djoser” the third family which is considered a god of medicine.
- There is a medical plate with surgical instruments of various types, as most of them are used till now.
Crocodile Museum in Kom Ombo Temple
It contains mummified crocodiles since the days of the ancient Egyptians. The museum displays 22 of the 50 crocodiles previously found in the area near the Kom Ombo temple, where it displays crocodiles that were still in the fetus stage, small crocodiles and large crocodiles, as well as various lengths of up to about 5.5 meters, next to 8 crocodiles in coffins and burial rolls.
As well as 20 pieces of paintings and statues that belong to crocodile worship.
The museum opened in January 2012.
The museum building was originally a police station but due to its location opposite the archaeological sites, the Egyptian government turned it into a museum as part of Kom Ombo Temple.