Siwa oasis is an Egyptian city and oasis in Western Sahara, 820 km from Cairo, 65 km from the Libyan border, 300 km west of Marsa Matrouh, and 600 km west of the Nile Valley. Matrouh is administratively controlled. The wells and springs used for irrigation, drinking, natural water filling, and treatment, with four large lakes, are also scattered. Several archaeological sites, such as the Temple of Amun, which witnessed the phenomenon of spring equinox twice a year and the graves of the Mount of the Dead, include several types of animal and plant life forms.
The oasis is home to approximately 35,000 people, most of whom work in agriculture or tourism. The desert continental climate is an oasis, it is very hot in summer, but its winter is very cold at night.
Siwa Oasis is renowned for its therapeutic tourism, with its natural ingredients available for alternative medicine. SUV safari is a popular destination for visitors to the Oasis. Some statistics indicate that Siwa receives about 30,000 tourists annually from Egyptians and foreigners.
And classified several foreign and Arab sites in the 9 most isolated places on the planet. The architecture in Siwa has a special and distinctive character. Traditional houses are built with a stone of arches made of salt and soft sand mixed with clay. Doors and windows are made of olive and palm trees.
The art of embroidery and hand-made pottery are characteristic of the traditional craftsmanship of the oasis, which is topped by the Tajin tahini, and the traditional and beautifully decorated traditional dessert cooking utensils.
The people of Siwa have a special day of harvest, which they celebrate when the moon completes the sky in October of each year.
Despite the occurrence of “Siwa” in the middle of the desert, but the freshwater spread in the back in the form of a large number of wells and eyes, up to 200 eyes flow daily from 190 thousand cubic meters of water, used for irrigation and drinking and natural water and treatment, and the amount of water from the well and one of the most famous of which is the hot, cold, sweet and salty, in addition to the sulfuric eyes.
These eyes include Ain Ghazrath, Ain al-Dakrour, Ain Qureisht, Ain al-Hamam, Ain Tamousa, Ain Khamisa, Ein al-Jerba
Is one of the most famous tourist attractions of Siwa, also known as Ain Juba or Ain Shams, a stone bath filled with natural hot spring water, and some claim to be named after the Egyptian Queen, who sacrificed herself during her visit to Siwa, while some deny that This visit took place from the ground up.
It is about 6 km west of Siwa and is located on the island of Patanas overlooking the salt lake and surrounded by palm trees and desert landscapes.
It is also called the “Great Sand Sea Well”, a hot sulfur spring 10 km from the oasis near the Libyan border in the heart of the Great Sand Sea.
Ein Kigar :
The eyes of the water used for therapeutic purposes are rheumatic psoriasis. Ein Kigar is the most famous, with a temperature of 67 C and containing several minerals and sulfuric elements.
It has an area of 960 feddans, Lake Siwa west of the city of Shali with an area of 3600 feddans, and Lake Al-Maraki west of the oasis in Bahi al-Din area of 700 acres.
The oasis comprises several other lakes, including Lake Taghagin, Lake of the Middle and Lake Shayta. Lake Watanas is a tourist attraction located 5 km west of Siwa, with the island of Watanas surrounded by the lake from three directions.
The protected area is 7,800 km. It is divided into three sectors: the Eastern Sector and the area of about 6000 km, the western sector and the area of about 1700 km, the southern sector of the southern area of about 100 km. The region is classified as a natural reserve with its rich biological diversity and natural and cultural heritage.
Many mammals, reptiles, birds, invertebrates and insects, including endangered dwarf gazelles, Phoenician fox, Chitta, endangered cats, Migratory birds, as well as flora.
It is a mountain that includes a collection of archaeological tombs dating back to the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, which were reused during the Greco-Roman Period. The mountain is about 2 km from Siwa, and the graves were discovered as a result of the people fleeing Siwa to the mountain during World War II raids.
Is the tomb of the priest of the god Osiris, who received the title of the great in the city of the Just and Straight, and the tomb is a caricature of the goddess Thoth, in addition to a religious scene known as the Four Bulls.
Is one of the most important tombs of the Western Sahara archaeological, which found inside a large number of mummies. The importance of the cemetery is to clarify the mating between ancient Egyptian art and Greek art, and one of the most important paintings in the cemetery is the view of the Court of Osiris, and a view of the goddess Naut the goddess of heaven.
It is one of the most important archaeological tombs carved in Mount Al-Muti. It was discovered in 1940, and was known by the name because of the disappearance of the name of the owner of the cemetery and the admiration of the people of Siwa view of the crocodile located in the cemetery.
The cemetery is full of views of the Book of the Dead, and other scenes of the graveyard worshiping some gods, and on the side of the entrance images of three gods holding knives for the purpose of protecting the mummy.
The tomb of Miso Isis
Is one of the archeological tombs in the region and there is a text describing the god Osiris in the name of the great god in That, and the archaeologists are likely to be “That” is the ancient name of Siywa.
It is a contiguous ridge. The mountain is located 3 km south of Siwa Oasis, with two peaks called “Nadra and Nazareth”. At the top of Nazareth there is a grotto carved in the rock called “Tnshur”, below which there is an effect called “House of Sultan” made of clean limestone. The mountain is famous for its hot sand with therapeutic properties, and it contains the red dye used in the manufacture of ceramic pots. During the summer, Egyptians and foreigners flock to the mountain to enjoy hot sand baths that are capable of treating rheumatic diseases, joint pain, spine and skin diseases.
The temple of Amun, also known as the Temple of Revelation, the Temple of Predictions, or the Temple of Alexander, is one of the most important monuments in the Siwa oasis. It was established in the Pharaonic era to spread the Amun religion among the tribes and neighboring peoples due to the location of Siwa as a forum for trade routes between the south, north, west and east.
The temple is located 4 km east of the city of Siwa and was famous for the visit of the Macedonian leader Alexander the Great after opening Egypt in 331 BC The temple is an astronomical phenomenon called the spring equinox where the solar disk perpendicular to the temple twice a year, on March 20 or 21, The spring equinox, September 22 or 23, the date of autumnal equinox, monitors the phenomenon the only day of the year, equaling night and day 90 days after the shortest day of the year, and 90 days later, the longest day of the year.
The Um Ubaida temple is the temple of Amun II in al-Waha and is located near the Temple of Revelation, built by the Egyptian pharaoh Nectanobo II or Nakhtanpo II of the thirtieth Dynasty, and features a pharaoh as he kneels to the god Amun. There are different accounts of how the temple was destroyed. Some of them indicate that an earthquake in 1881 caused the destruction of the temple. Others say that the temple was blown up in 1897 by Siwa governor Mahmoud Azmi, who was transferred to Siwa after the Arab revolution for his sympathy.
The city of Shali dates back to the year 1203.
Its name means the city in the Siwa language, and the city had only one door for the purpose of reassuring its defenses. It was called Anshal in the sense of the city gate.
A second door on the south side was called “Atrat” meaning the new door. It was used for those who prefer to avoid traffic to the heads of the family. The people of Siwa were not aware of this place.
They used it secretly to get out or enter the siege of the city.
The Siwa prevents the women from leaving except in the narrowest and without mixing with the ball Jal, a third door was opened called “Kadouha”, and women were only allowed to use the door when they were released.
In the construction of the city’s houses, the mud-brick stone was extracted from the soil saturated with salt, because when it dried it became similar to the cement in its hardness.
On 1820 the forces of Muhammad Ali Pasha Siwa opened and subjected it to the authority of the government. In 1826, a large number of houses in the city collapsed and the rest of them destroyed as a result of the heavy rains.
The inhabitants of Shali fled and built new houses on the roof of the mountain.
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