Egypt is home to one of the oldest civilizations on Earth, Ancient Egypt as its name is derived from the Greek word Aegyptos or: “Aegyptus”.
The civilization of ancient Egyptians was concentrated on the banks of the Nile in what is now the Arab Republic of Egypt.
The civilization of ancient Egypt is one of the longest and most ancient civilizations, and despite its decline at times, it was regaining its strength to come back stronger than before.
The history of ancient Egypt passed through three stages
The old kingdom of Egypt
The Middle Kingdom
The New Kingdom
The old Kingdom of Egypt
The ancient Egyptian kingdom (2686 BC – 2181 BC) is known as the “era of the pyramid builders”, it is the first & oldest kingdom in history includes the third Egyptian dynasty and the fourth great Egyptian dynasty.
With them, King Sneferu mastered the art of building the pyramids, and the pyramids of Giza were built under the rule of Kings Khufu, Khafre & Menkaure.
The historical records of this period, the Fourth Dynasty and the Sixth Egyptian Dynasty are rare and historians consider the date of the era to be literal and architectural to a large extent in that it was through antiquities and their inscriptions that scholars were able to construct history.
The pyramids themselves convey scant information about their construction, but the mortuary temples erected nearby and accompanying steles provide the names of the kings and other important information.
Furthermore, stone inscriptions found elsewhere from that time record various events and dates of their occurrence. Finally, the tomb of the last Egyptian Fifth Dynasty king, Unas, provides the First Pyramid Texts (elaborate panels and inscriptions inside the tomb) that shed light on the religious beliefs of the time.
However, it is the pyramids that are most famous for the Old Kingdom.
The Middle Kingdom
The Middle Kingdom from 2050 to 1710 BC.
The period of the Middle Kingdom was great prosperity, consisting of the eleventh to thirteenth dynasties. Although the Eleventh Dynasty had its origins from the First Intermediate Period, the last king of this era succeeded in unifying Egypt, thus beginning the Middle Kingdom, King Nebhepetre Mentuhotep (around 2055 – 2004 BC). The Eleventh Dynasty came from Thebes (now Luxor), which was not an important city during that period, but it will become one of the most prominent and important cities in Egypt during the rest of ancient Egyptian history
The New Kingdom
The Egyptian civilization began around 3150 BC. When King Mena (Narmer) united the south and north of Egypt together and then developed over the next three millennia.
Ancient Egypt reached the height of its civilization in the New Kingdom era, and then entered the country in a period of slow decline. Egypt was attacked at that time by many foreign powers.
The pharaohs ended officially when the Roman Empire invaded Egypt and made it one of its provinces.
After the collapse of the modern Kingdom, Egypt entered into a state of continuous collapse characterized by the foreign occupation of the land of Egypt.
The reign of the pharaohs ended in the year 31 AH (AH) after the battle of the ” Aktium ” in which the Queen ( Cleopatra ) The last kings of the Pharaohs were defeated.
After that, the Romans conquered Egypt and converted Egypt for the first time in its history, to province or territory that followed the Roman Empire.